WHAT IS TEMPORARY PROTECTION?
We will try to provide you with support and information in the ‘Bilgi Portalı’ section of our ‘Friend Üsküdar with Inclusive’ project supported under the ENHANCER programme.
Temporary protection is a status that provides temporary shelter and protection to people who are forced to migrate to a particular country in a forced and urgent manner. Syrian citizens, refugees from Syria and stateless persons who came to Türkiye since 28 April 2011 due to the civil war and conflicts in Syria are under temporary protection by the Turkish government.
Temporary protection offers certain rights and benefits to these persons admitted to Türkiye. The Presidency of Migration Management (PMM) is the official body responsible for all asylum procedures in Türkiye, including temporary protection, and identifies individuals seeking temporary protection.
The rights and assistance provided to persons under temporary protection allow them to remain in Türkiye until more durable solutions to their situation are found and protect them from forced return. These rights include basic needs such as health care, education, social assistance, psychological support and access to the labour market.
This protection and assistance for Syrian refugees and stateless persons under temporary protection reflects Türkiye’s approach based on the right to live humanely and respect for human rights. In this way, individuals under temporary protection are supported to integrate into society and look to the future with more hope. The temporary protection process is implemented to meet urgent humanitarian needs and to provide temporary security and protection to these individuals.
REGISTRATION PROCESS, RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS
Registration and Obligations
Registration is both an important right and an obligation for foreigners seeking international protection in Türkiye. It gives you a legal status in Türkiye and allows you to access the services provided.
However, in addition to this right, it is also important to comply with the country’s laws and administrative requirements during your stay in Türkiye.
Some of these obligations include:
- You must reside in the province where you are registered or stay in the province designated by the Presidency of Migration Management (PMM).
- You have an obligation to sign or report at certain times. If you want to travel outside your province of registration, you need to obtain a travel permit from the Provincial Directorate of Migration Management (PDMM).
- You are required to notify the Provincial Directorate of Population and Citizenship Affairs about changes such as address, identity, marital status. It is also important to report changes such as births and deaths in your family.
- Changes in your employment status, income, or assets should be reported to PDMM.
- In order to benefit from services such as health, education, social assistance, psychological support, interpretation, and access to the labor market, you must register and fulfill the obligations stipulated by law.
Following all these procedures will allow you to stay in Türkiye legally until you decide to return to Syria. Both exercising your rights and fulfilling your obligations are important for a more organized life and access to services.
Syrian refugees in Türkiye have the opportunity to attend free Turkish language, skills, hobby and vocational training courses offered by Public Education Centres. A temporary protection identity document is required to enrol in Public Education courses. Each Public Education Centre organises courses tailored to the demands and needs of the local population and is flexible in opening new courses.
You can also take part in skills training courses offered by the Ministry of Labour and Social Security (MoLSS). You can visit İŞKUR‘s website to take advantage of current opportunities in this regard. These courses offer important support and opportunities for Syrian refugees who want to get a job or improve their existing skills.
Studying Online in Türkiye
Syrian students can enrol at Anadolu University, an online and distance education programme in Türkiye. The degrees and diplomas offered by Anadolu University are recognised in Türkiye and internationally, and offer a reliable education.
In addition, other institutions also offer online programmes (e.g. University of the People, Coursera). Although these programmes are not officially recognised in Türkiye, they can provide important benefits in terms of knowledge refresher and university preparation. You can also benefit from YÖS (Foreign National Student Examination) preparation modules for university preparation.
There is also the possibility to follow some online courses from YTB (Presidency for Turks Abroad and Related Communities) Academy. These courses can help you improve yourself in subjects such as learning the Turkish language, stress management, teamwork and CV preparation. In this way, you can have the chance to increase your knowledge and skills in different fields through online education.
Skill Acquisition and Vocational Training
Syrians have the opportunity to enrol in vocational schools affiliated to the Ministry of National Education. The procedures and conditions for enrolment in these schools are the same as in other schools and there is no discrimination.
Skill-building courses are offered free of charge by Public Education Centres and certificates are issued by the Ministry of National Education. You must have a valid foreigner ID number to attend these courses.
In some provinces, Public Education Centres offer special programmes for skills acquisition and vocational training. For more information about these special programmes, you can contact the Public Education Centre in your district or the Provincial Directorate of National Education in your province. In this way, you can have the opportunity to improve your professional skills and take advantage of opportunities in the field of education.
Turkish Language Education
During your stay in Türkiye, it is recommended that you emphasise learning Turkish, which is a basic skill that will make your daily life easier. Learning Turkish will make your daily tasks (such as shopping, using public transport) more comfortable, help you make friends with other people living in the same area, and support you in emergency situations (such as communicating with the doctor or the police).
Public Education Centres organise free Turkish courses. To attend these courses, please contact your local Public Education Centre.
Anadolu University offers free online Turkish language courses from beginner level (A1) to basic level (A2). These courses are open to anyone who wants to learn Turkish. For more information about the ANA-DİL Turkish language programme and to register for the programme, you can visit Anadolu University’s ANA-DİL Turkish programme website.
Yunus Emre Enstitüsü (YEE) offers online Turkish courses from beginner level (A1) to advanced level (C1). Since the courses are offered in a flexible structure, YEE’s “Distance Turkish Learning Portal” allows students to learn Turkish at their own pace and from wherever they want. For more information, you can visit Yunus Emre Enstitüsü’s website and register for the programme.
WORKING IN TÜRKİYE
As a Syrian citizen under temporary protection residing in Türkiye, you have the right to work in Türkiye. There are various options for a work permit, such as salaried work and self-employment.
Working legally in Türkiye has many advantages and it should be noted that illegal work and businesses are against the law. When you have a work permit, you can benefit from social security and insurance rights and participate in this system. You will also have the same rights as Turkish citizens as well as the right to receive the minimum wage.
WHAT ARE THE WORK PERMITS FOR SYRIANS UNDER TEMPORARY PROTECTION IN TÜRKİYE?
Work Permits for Wage Employment
Syrian nationals under temporary protection in Türkiye may apply for a salaried work permit six months after the completion of the temporary protection procedures and the receipt of their temporary protection identity document (with a number starting with 99). You must apply for a work permit in your province of residence and you must not have obtained a work permit before.
Work permits for wage employment are lodged by employers. Once you have reached an agreement on work with your potential employer, he/she should make a work permit application for you through e-Government website of the Government of Türkiye.
Once the work permit has been granted, your employer will receive an email indicating that the work permit application has been successful. The outcome of the application can be viewed on e-Government website. A work permit document in the form of a card, which is issued by the MoLSS for you (the employee), will be sent by courier to the address where you will work.
It should be noted that your work permit will only be valid in the province where you are registered. If you find a job in a different province, you and your employer must apply to the Provincial Directorate of Migration Management to change your place of registration. It is important to have the labour contract you signed with your employer with you when making this application. Once the change is made, your employer can apply for a work permit.
The documents required for the work permit application are as follows:
- Temporary protection beneficiary’s temporary protection identity document (with the identification number starting with 99),
- Photograph of the person,
- A contract signed between the employer and the employee,
- Employer’s e-Government password,
- If necessary, relevant documents of the workplace (certificate of activity, other documents, information on the latest capital and shareholding structure of the organisation, latest tax declaration, power of attorney, etc.).
Ready-made forms are available on the website of the Ministry of Labour and Social Security. Both Arabic and Turkish templates are available and the parties have the right to use any contract of their choice according to Turkish labour law
Work Permits for Self-employment
As a Syrian citizen under temporary protection residing in Türkiye, you can apply for a self-employment permit. If you want to work on your own behalf or own a business, you need to have a business established and officially registered in Türkiye according to the Turkish Commercial Code. There are many different types of businesses in Türkiye.
For example, you have the right to set up your own business, such as a small shop. However, in this case, your business must be registered in accordance with Turkish regulations.
Once you have officially registered your business in Türkiye, you can also apply for a work permit for yourself. In this way, you can manage your application more effectively and have a work permit by taking the necessary steps.
SUPPORT AND INCENTIVES FOR STARTING A BUSINESS FOR SYRIANS UNDER TEMPORARY PROTECTION
Syrian nationals under temporary protection residing in Türkiye can benefit from limited support for business start-up grants provided by UNHCR and international NGOs in Türkiye. Syrians wishing to benefit from such grants for start-up businesses can apply to the relevant organisations.
In addition, the Turkish government also offers entrepreneurship incentives. Information on these incentives can be found in the relevant information sources. These incentives provide important opportunities for those who want to open a business and engage in entrepreneurial activities. You can find the relevant information here.
WHAT ARE THE SUPPORTS GIVEN TO ENTREPRENEURS IN TÜRKİYE?
Entrepreneurship is growing in Türkiye and is encouraged through a wide range of support to meet the needs of various sectors. The government and the private sector actively support entrepreneurship through a range of programmes and incentives that encourage the realisation of ideas and the establishment of sustainable business models.
Support for entrepreneurs includes financial assistance as well as services such as training, mentoring, counselling and networking. Government agencies such as TUBITAK and KOSGEB encourage the commercialisation of innovative ideas and the development of SMEs by providing financial support and training to entrepreneurs. In addition, venture capital firms and angel investors in the private sector support entrepreneurs with financial investment and mentoring, contributing to their success.
Technoparks and accelerator programmes in Türkiye provide an important platform for technology and innovation-oriented start-ups in particular. Such organisations increase entrepreneurs’ chances of success by providing important support and guidance at stages such as realising their business ideas, prototyping, marketing and business development.
Entrepreneurs’ business growth and the overall strengthening of Türkiye’s entrepreneurship ecosystem are crucial for economic growth and innovation. Therefore, the ability of entrepreneurs to effectively utilise available support plays a critical role in the country’s economic growth and global competitiveness.
Within the scope of government support, institutions such as TÜBİTAK and KOSGEB provide entrepreneurs with a wide range of support such as financial incentives, training programmes, consultancy services and project financing covering various sectors. In addition, specific government support and incentives are also available for various sectors in Türkiye. They aim to encourage entrepreneurship, especially in strategic sectors such as technology, education, agriculture and energy.
Under private sector support, angel investors, venture capital firms, accelerators and other elements of the start-up ecosystem help entrepreneurs develop their businesses by providing a variety of financing and mentoring services to start-up and growing ventures. In addition, many private sector organisations in Türkiye provide special incentives and services to entrepreneurs by offering expertise in areas such as technology, marketing, law and finance.
Under local support, local governments organise various programmes to strengthen the entrepreneurship ecosystem and support regional development. These programmes are often aimed at strengthening the local economy and can increase opportunities for entrepreneurs to start and expand their businesses. In addition, local economic development agencies and chambers of commerce also support entrepreneurs on their journey to success by offering training programmes, mentoring, networking opportunities and sometimes financing.
Entrepreneurs growing their businesses and strengthening Türkiye’s entrepreneurship ecosystem is critical for the country’s economic growth and innovation. Therefore, effective utilisation of available support by entrepreneurs makes a significant contribution to boosting Türkiye’s economic growth and global competitiveness.
WHAT IS YOUNG ENTREPRENEUR SUPPORT IN TÜRKİYE?
Young entrepreneurs can apply for this support provided that they are over the age of 18 and have not completed the age of 29. In addition, they must be within the scope of the young entrepreneur exemption in terms of earnings according to the repeated Article 20 of the Income Tax Law. In order to benefit from the support, they must meet the following conditions:
- Being insured for the first time as of 01.06.2018 within the scope of Bağkur,
- Being a taxpayer for the first time due to commercial or self-employment activity,
- To have established an ordinary partnership or sole proprietorship.
- Young entrepreneurs can benefit from Bağkur premium support for 12 months when they meet the above conditions.
Who cannot benefit from Young Entrepreneur Support?
- Those who started work before 01.06.2018,
- Persons who have a partnership in another company or who were previously a taxpayer but closed their company,
- Those who establish a joint stock or limited liability company.
- Those who are in the above-mentioned situation cannot benefit from the young entrepreneur support
The conditions for Young Entrepreneur Support are as follows:
- The young entrepreneur candidate who wants to benefit from the support must be over the age of 18 and must not have completed the age of 29.
- According to the repeated Article 20 of the Income Tax Law, it must be within the scope of the young entrepreneur exception in terms of earnings.
- Those who are insured for the first time as of 01.06.2018 within the scope of Bağkur can apply for this support.
- Those who have opened a taxpayer for the first time due to commercial or self-employment activity can receive this support.
- Young entrepreneurs who have established an ordinary partnership or sole proprietorship can also benefit from this incentive.
- Bağkur premium support is provided to young entrepreneurs who meet these conditions for 12 months.
However, the following situations prevent benefiting from the Young Entrepreneur Support:
- Those who started work before 01.06.2018 cannot receive this support.
- Persons who have a partnership in another company or who were previously a taxpayer and closed their company
- People who establish a joint stock or limited liability company cannot benefit from this incentive
WHAT ARE THE YOUNG ENTREPRENEUR INCENTIVE AMOUNT AND ADVANTAGES?
In recent years, the desire among young entrepreneurs in Türkiye to start their own business and step into the business world has been increasing significantly. The incentives and advantages offered to young entrepreneurs thanks to the support of the state and universities increase the courage of more people in this field. Young entrepreneur support provides important support to young people with various incentives such as tax exemption and Bağkur premium support.
There are some conditions to benefit from young entrepreneur support. Entrepreneurs who want to benefit from the support must be over the age of 18 and have not completed the age of 29. In addition, they must be within the scope of the young entrepreneur exception in terms of earnings according to the repeated Article 20 of the Income Tax Law and must have opened a taxpayer for the first time due to commercial or self-employment activity.
Entrepreneurs who benefit from the young entrepreneur support will be exempt from paying tax on up to 150.000 TL of their income thanks to the income tax exemption. This exemption amount will be updated every year and will be valid for 3 years. This will help young entrepreneurs to focus on their business more comfortably by reducing their financial burden in the start-up period.
However, Bağkur premiums are also covered by the treasury for 1 year within the scope of young entrepreneur support. Thanks to this advantage, young entrepreneurs will be able to move away from concerns about paying social security premiums and further reduce their costs. For example, assuming that the lowest monthly Bağkur premium to be paid in 2023 is 3,452.76 TL, a total of 41,433.12 TL premium that young entrepreneurs have to pay for 12 months will be covered by the treasury.
Young entrepreneur support provides an important support to young people who dream of starting a business and encourages the spirit of entrepreneurship. Thanks to these incentives, more young people are encouraged to start their own business and make positive contributions to the business world. Therefore, it has become an important goal to support young people to discover their entrepreneurial potential and take successful steps in business life.
Law on Young Entrepreneur Support
The following subparagraph has been added to the first paragraph of Article 81 of the Social Security and General Health Insurance Law dated 31.05.2006 and numbered 5510
31.12.1960 dated 31.12.1960 and numbered 193 within the scope of Article 20 of the Income Tax Law dated 31.12.1960 and numbered 193, the premiums of real persons who benefit from the earnings exemption for young entrepreneurs and who have completed the age of 18 and have not completed the age of 29 as of the taxpayer start date, within the scope of subparagraph 1 of paragraph 1 (b) of paragraph 1 of Article 4 of this Law, as of 01/06/2018, the premiums of real persons who are considered insured for the first time are covered by the Treasury for 1 year over the lower limit of earnings based on the premium determined in accordance with Article 82. In ordinary partnerships and sole proprietorship partnerships, only one partner can benefit from this paragraph.
Accordingly, young entrepreneurs between the ages of 18-29 who establish a sole proprietorship for the first time as of 01.06.2018 will be provided with Bağkur premium support for 1 year. This incentive, where the premium of 3.452,76 TL to be paid monthly is covered by the state treasury, is limited to 1 year. Thus, the total amount of support to be provided to young entrepreneurs for 12 months will be 41,433.12 TL.
HOW TO BENEFIT FROM YOUNG ENTREPRENEUR SUPPORT?
The application process to benefit from the Young Entrepreneur Support is quite simple. You can make your application with the following steps:
- Login to Interactive Tax Office: You can apply for young entrepreneur support through the Interactive Tax Office. You will need to prepare a petition for this process.
- Petition Preparation: You need to create a petition for your application. In the petition, you should state that you want to benefit from the young entrepreneur support and that you meet the relevant conditions.
- Financial Advisor Support: If you need help with the preparation of your application, you can get help from your financial advisor who supports you in setting up your company.
- Application Process: After preparing your petition and filling in the necessary information, you can make your application through the Interactive Tax Office.
- Application Result: Your application will be evaluated and finalised by the tax office. If your application is finalised, you will be given a document stating that you “can benefit from the young entrepreneur support”.
- Bağkur Application: After your application is finalised, you can start to benefit from Bağkur premium support by going to the Bağkur Insured Registration Service of the SSI Directorate closest to your residence address and presenting this document.
If you have Bağkur premium debts arising during the application process, you can benefit from this support and have your debts cancelled. In this way, young entrepreneurs have the opportunity to make a more comfortable start by reducing the financial burden in business start-up processes
One of the important issues to be considered while benefiting from the Young Entrepreneur Support is to determine the correct start date. During the application, the date of establishment of the company is also considered as your start date and your incentive application is evaluated based on this date.
For this reason, it is important to carefully plan your start date and company establishment process before applying. Ensuring that your start date is correct and in line with the establishment date of the company prevents incorrect and unfair incentive applications and prevents problems that may occur in the future.
In addition, while declaring your start date during the application, you may face serious penalties if it is determined that you have unrecorded income in previous periods. This situation may lead to both penalties for your unrecorded income and a refund request on the grounds that you received the young entrepreneur support unfairly.
In addition, becoming a partner in an existing business or professional activity may prevent you from benefiting from young entrepreneur support. In order to benefit from the incentive, you must be insured by Bağkur as of the establishment date of the company at the time of application.
This project is funded by the European Union under the ENHANCER program implemented by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) and coordinated by the Ministry of Industry and Technology, Directorate General for Development Agencies. Üsküdar Municipality is responsible for the content contained herein and the European Union, ICMPD and the Turkish Ministry of Industry and Technology cannot be held responsible.